عنوان مقاله [English]
Autism is one of the predominant disorders of growth that appears in early childhood.The term “predominant” is taken from this concept that autism disorder effects different aspects of the capability of a child and doing different activities. Specially in social skills, communication and recognition. The environment of life is one of the significant elements on human morale and also role of nature is very important and effective on the emotional, cognitive and normative development of a child. Some recent researches indicate that the environment of human's life such as; the man-made environment, artificial environment and natural environment have great influence on the process of social growth and gaining individual skills. Children and paying attention to their needs in the society are essential;children need environments where they can grow and represent their imagination power where they can play and mature in the community level. Therefore, autistic children are not apart from other children, and we should pay attention to their needs, to their growth and to the improvement of their social interactions.
Therefore,designers and architecture had to think and search about Autism, Autistic children and their nessd in society,then start to design and creat special space for these children.
This research attends to answer these two questions:
1- What is the relationship between nature and open areas to improve the performance of autistic children?
2- Which of the healing landscape design principles are effective in the process of improving the performance of autistic children?
Try to represent principles of design for open areas and child’s playground by healing landscape according to the behavioral characteristics of autistic children in order to help these children to improve their performance by play therapy in open areas. And likewise, by using sensory garden(considering five human senses such as olfaction, sight, hearing, taste and touch) and sensory elements in nature (Such as design of architecture and landscape elements with natural sensory elements like light, natural colors, natural materials, tissues, water, wind, tree, flower,grass and so on.)we help to improve the process of sensory processing of autistic children.(autistic children are found in a wide range from children with very high to very low sensory processing).
Authors try to find the design principles through the field observation, interviews with experts, and also with autistic children's parents, teachers and therapists of them as well as literature reviews. This is an applied research by using the descriptive and analytical method.
This research offers that designing open areas and playgrounds for autistic children with emphasis on using neutral colors, soft materials and textures, and animal therapy and gardening therapy. These can provide moderate conditions and safe areas for them. Therefore, these areas are effective on the performance improvement and it decreases significantly this disorder. Nature therapy is considered as a new way to grow and improve the social interactions of autistic children and it is going to have a great impact on their lives.
Autism, Design Principles, Open Area, performance, Children