عنوان مقاله [English]
Architectural experience, whether as an experience of facing a building or as being present in it, is the most important factor in the existence of architecture. Understanding a phenomenon such as "architectural experience" necessarily requires a rigorous research perspective, and each research perspective should be compiled according to the broad architectural discourse on experience. This study seeks to gain a clear understanding of the nature of the "architectural experience" through enactive cognitive approach based on phenomenological view and neurological findings. This is because both of approaches, from the very beginning, investigate the architectural experience through the relationship between the mind and the human's psychological experience of the world. In fact, humans have a central role in both attitudes in the perception of the world, since on the one hand, experience-based phenomenology is their basis, and on the other hand neuroscience researches offer a complementary approach relevant to architectural experiences. This is because human emotions and his reactions to the environment are analyzed based on the function of the brain and its responses to various stimuli. Plus, both mentioned contexts consider "sensory experience" a key factor in perception and relate human psyche to physiological emotions and experience of the environment. Taking these into considerations, this study seeks to address the following questions: How is "experience" achieved in architecture? And what components help this experience form?
This study presents a conceptual model of the subject using a qualitative approach and a descriptive-analytical method. In conclusion, the findings showed that the architectural experience brings together the biological perspective related to the human through concepts related to "embodiment" on the one hand and "motivation" on the other as architectural potentials for interaction. These components are developed through enactive approach to cognition, perception and emotion. Then the role of the "body schema" and "embodiment" attitude to architectural perception as well as the concept of "affordance" of architecture - as the design goals- are focused in order to describe the architectural experience. In addition, there is a particular emphasis on the essential role of the "emotional component" in the cycle of cognition, perception, and practice. Thus, by using the enactive approach as the central feature of experience and its corresponding content, one can consider the "architectural experience" as a combination of cognitive, embodied, practical and emotional components. From the perspective of the enactive approach, the way people experience the perception of architectural spaces is generally affected and controlled by sensory-motor activity and influenced by specific embodiment conditions. Accordingly, it can be argued that the human interacts with architecture through "enactive embodiment" and that experience in architecture is formed through complex patterns of sensory-motor activity. Therefore, users are not merely abstract observers of spaces, but the value and meaning of architecture is obtained through architecture-body interaction. According to this practical framework, the embodied "interpretation" becomes possible. It makes the body essential for the architectural experience and emphasizes the intrinsic connection between architecture and the human body through "action". In addition, in accordance with sensory-motor theory of perception and its practical meaning as predictive and action-oriented, it is assumed that architecture can be understood by presenting its affordances as potentials for action. Thus, the validity of the architectural experience in the tectonic language of construction is rooted in bodily perception.